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Muscles of the Back

The epaxial muscles, or vertebral extensors, develop on the dorsal side of the vertebral column and skull. These muscles develop from the myotomal epimere of all the trunk somites and are found along the entire length of the vertebral column and back of the occipital bone. They comprise the intrinsic muscles of the vertebral column, which are often referred to as the “true back muscles.” The vertebral extensors form four distinct muscle groups.