The mandible pronunciation (from Latin mandibula, "jawbone") or inferior maxillary bone forms the lower jaw and holds the lower teeth in place. The term "mandible" also refers to both the upper and lower sections of the beaks of birds; in this case the "lower mandible" corresponds to the mandible of humans, while the "upper mandible" is functionally equivalent to the human maxilla but mainly consists of the premaxillary bones. Conversely, in bony fish for example, the lower jaw may be termed "lower maxilla". The mandible consists of: *a curved, horizontal portion, the body. *two perpendicular portions, the rami, which unite with the ends of the body nearly at right angles. *Alveolar process, the tooth bearing area of the mandible (upper part of the body of the mandible). *Condyle, superior (upper) and posterior projection from the ramus, which makes the temporomandibular joint with the temporal bone. *Coronoid process, superior and anterior projection from the ramus. This provides attachment to the temporalis muscle.